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Guiding Principles of REST
Client–server – By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components.

Stateless – Each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client.

Cacheable – Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests.

Uniform interface – By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints:
identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state.

Layered system – The layered system style allows an architecture to be
composed of hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot “see” beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting.

Code on demand (optional) – REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented.

Methods of REST API
All of us working with the technology of the web, do CRUD operations. When I say CRUD operations, I mean that we create a resource, read a resource, update a resource and delete a resource. Now, to do these actions, you can actually use the HTTP methods, which are nothing but the REST API Methods. Refer below.

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What is Azure IoT Hub?

What is Azure IoT Hub?

IoT Hub is a managed service, hosted in the cloud, that acts as a central message hub for bi-directional communication between your IoT application and the devices it manages. You can use Azure IoT Hub to build IoT solutions with reliable and secure communications between millions of IoT devices and a cloud-hosted solution backend. You can connect virtually any device to IoT Hub.

IoT Hub supports communications both from the device to the cloud and from the cloud to the device. IoT Hub supports multiple messaging patterns such as device-to-cloud telemetry, file upload from devices, and request-reply methods to control your devices from the cloud. IoT Hub monitoring helps you maintain the health of your solution by tracking events such as device creation, device failures, and device connections.

IoT Hub’s capabilities help you build scalable, full-featured IoT solutions such as managing industrial equipment used in manufacturing, tracking valuable assets in healthcare, and monitoring office building usage.

Azure IoT Hub provides,

Device libraries for the most commonly used platforms and languages for easy device connectivity.
Secure communications with multiple options for device-to-cloud and cloud-to-device hyper-scale communication.
Queryable storage of per-device state information as well as meta-data.
Managing devices with IoT Hub
The needs and requirements of IoT operators vary substantially in different industries, from transport to manufacturing to agriculture to utilities. There is also a wide variation in the types of devices used by IoT operators. IoT Hub is able to provide the capabilities, patterns and code libraries to allow developers to build management solutions that can manage very diverse sets of devices.

Configuring and controlling devices

Devices which are connected to IoT Hub can be managed using an array of built-in functionality. This means that-

Device metadata and state information for all your devices can be stored, synchronized and queried.
Device state can be set either per-device or in groups depending on common characteristics of the devices.
A state change in a device can be automatically responded to by using message routing integration.
The lifecycle of devices with IoT Hub

Operators can create a device metadata scheme that allows them to easily carry out bulk management operations.

New devices can be securely provisioned to IoT Hub and operators can quickly discover device capabilities. The IoT Hub identity registry is used to create device identities and credentials.

Device management operations, such as configuration changes and firmware updates can be done in bulk or by direct methods, while still maintaining system security.

Operators can be easily alerted to any issues arising and at the same time the device collection health can be monitored, as well as the status of any ongoing operations.

Devices need to be replaced, retired or decommissioned. The IoT Hub identity registry is used to withdraw device identities and credentials.

Device management patterns

IoT Hub supports a range of device management patterns including,

Factory reset
Firmware update
Reporting progress and status
These patterns can be extended to fit your exact situation. Alternatively, new patterns can be designed based on these templates.

Connecting your devices

You can build applications which run on your devices and interact with IoT Hub using the Azure IoT device SDK. Windows, Linux distributions, and real-time operating systems are supported platforms. Supported languages currently include,

Messaging Patterns

Azure IoT Hub supports a range of messaging patterns including,

Device to cloud telemetry
File upload from devices
Request-reply methods which enable devices to be controlled from the cloud
Message routing and event grid
Both IoT Hub message routing and IoT Hub integration with Event Grid makes it possible to stream data from your connected devices. However, there are differences. Message routing allows users to route device-to-cloud messages to a range of supported service endpoints such as Event Hubs and Azure Storage containers while IoT Hub integration with Event Grid is a fully managed routing service which can be extended into third-party business applications.

Device data can be routed

In Azure IoT Hub, the message routing functionality is built in. This allows you to set up automatic rules-based message fan-out. You can use message routing to decide where your hub sends your devices’ telemetry. Routing messages to multiple endpoints don’t incur any extra costs.

Building end-to-end solutions

End-to-end solutions can be built by integrating IoT Hub with other Azure services. For example,

Business processes can be automated using Azure Logic Apps.
You can run analytic computations in real-time on the data from your devices using Azure Stream Analytics.
AI models and machine learning can be added using Azure Machine Learning.
You can respond rapidly to critical events with Azure Event Grid.

Azure IoT Hub or Azure Event Hub?

Both Azure IoT Hub and Azure Event Hub are cloud services which can ingest, process and store large amounts of data. However, they were designed with different purposes in mind. Event Hub was developed for big data streaming while IoT Hub was designed specifically to connect IoT devices at scale to the Azure Cloud. Therefore, which one you choose to use will depend on the demands of your business.


Businesses face security, privacy, and compliance challenges which are unique to the IoT. Security for IoT solutions means that devices need to be securely provisioned and there needs to be secure connectivity between the devices and the cloud, as well as secure data protection in the cloud during processing and storage.

IoT Hub allows data to be sent on secure communications channels. Each device connects securely to the hub and each device can be managed securely. You can control access at the per-device level and devices are automatically provisioned to the correct hub when the device first boots up.

There’s also a range of different types of authentication depending on device capabilities, including SAS SAS token-based authentication, individual X.509 certificate authentication for secure, standards-based authentication, as well as X.509 CA authentication.

High Availability and Disaster Recovery

Uptime goals vary from business to business. Azure IoT Hub offers three main High Availability (HA) and Disaster Recovery (DR) features including:

Intra-region HA
The IoT Hub service provides intra-region HA by implementing redundancies in almost all layers of the service. The SLA published by the IoT Hub service is achieved by making use of these redundancies and are available automatically to developers. However, transient failures should be expected when using cloud computing; therefore, appropriate retry policies need to be built into components which interact with the cloud in order to deal with these transient failures.

Cross region DR
Situations may arise when a datacentre suffers from extended outages or some other physical failure. It is rare but possible that intra-region HA capability may not be able to help in some of these situations. However, IoT Hub has a number of possible solutions for recovering from extended outages or physical failures. In these situations, a customer can have a Microsoft initiated failover or a manual failover.

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